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This article is about the Yugoslav coin issued in various types from 1925 to 2002. For Serbian coins of the same denomination, see Serbian 2 dinar coin (disambiguation). For Macedonian coins of a similar denomination, see Macedonian 2 denar coin.
2 dinara
Yugoslavia 2 dinara 2002
2002 coin
General information
Country

Flag of Serbia and Montenegro FR Yugoslavia
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia SFR/FPR Yugoslavia
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia DF Yugoslavia
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Used by
Flag of Serbia Serbia (2006–2010)
Flag of Serbia Republic of Serbia (2000–2006)
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro FR Yugoslavia (1992–1993)
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia SFR/FPR Yugoslavia (1945–1992)
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia DF Yugoslavia (1945)
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1925–1942)
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945) German occupied Serbia (1941–1942)
Value
Years

19252002

Measurements and composition
Mass
  • 10 g (1925)
  • 5 g (1938, 1970-1981)
  • 4 g (1945)
  • 1.24 g (1953-1963)
  • 4.3 g (1982-1986, 1992)
  • 6.98 g (1990-1992)
  • 3.86 g (1993)
  • 5.25 g (2000-2002)
Diameter
  • 27 mm (1925)
  • 24.5 mm (1938, 1970-1981)
  • 22 mm (1945, 1982-1986, 2000-2002)
  • 22.2 mm (1953-1963)
  • 26 mm (1990-1992)
  • 21 mm (1992)
  • 20 mm (1993)
Thickness
  • 2.05 mm (1925)
  • 1.6 mm (1938, 1992-1993)
  • 1.5 mm (1945-1963, 1982-1986)
  • 1.65 mm (1970-1981)
  • 1.85 mm (1990-1992)
  • 1.8 mm (2000-2002)
Composition
Appearance
Shape

round

Alignment
Edge
  • reeded (1925, 1945, 1970-1992)
  • smooth (1938, 1953-1963, 1992-2002)
Obverse

See text

Reverse

See text

v · d · e

The 2 dinar coin is a circulation piece of Yugoslavia, a former Southeast European country that existed during the 20th and early 21st centuries. It was issued in 13 major types from 1925 to 2002: one under the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; two under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; one under both the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia) and Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia); five under the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia); and three under the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR Yugoslavia; later known as Serbia and Montenegro).

The first coin of the denomination was released in 1925, during the early reign of King Alexander I (1888–1934; r. 1921–1934). This piece was then followed in 1939 by two new 2 dinar coins (each dated 1938). Issued under King Peter II (1923–1970; r. 1934–1945) and his regent, Prince Paul Karađorđević (1893–1976), the two pieces differ only slightly in design, but are nonetheless described as separate types in most coin publications. All three of the aforementioned coins initially carried a legal tender face value equivalent to 2.00 Yugoslav Serbian dinara. By the time Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers in the spring of 1941, the coin of Alexander had already been withdrawn from circulation. Both 2 dinar pieces of Peter, however, continued to see use in the Serbian region of occupied Yugoslavia until 1942, holding a value of 2.00 Serbian dinara, or 1125 of a Reichsmark.

Because the Yugoslav Serbian dinar was discontinued during World War II, a new currency, the Federation dinar, was established after Yugoslavia's liberation in the spring of 1945. A new 2 dinar piece of the denomination was distributed that year by the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. It was then followed in 1954 by a coin (dated 1953) of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and in 1964 by another piece (dated 1963) of the Socialist Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. All three coins initially circulated for a value of 2.00 Federation dinara. By the end of 1956, the 1945 piece was demonetized and withdrawn from circulation. Even though the Federation dinar was replaced in 1966 by the hard dinar, the later 2 dinar coins of the former currency remained valid for 0.02 hard dinara before being withdrawn in the middle of 1968.

Three 2 dinar coins were then introduced under the new Yugoslav currency, each holding a face value equivalent to 2.00 hard dinara. The first two, a 1970-dated commemorative celebrating the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and a standard circulation piece, were released in 1971. The latter was then struck annually until 1981, when a second standard circulation type made its first public appearance. This coin remained in production until 1986. All of these pieces were eventually demonetized in 1988.

In 1990, Yugoslavia's hard dinar was replaced by the convertible dinar at a rate of 10,000 to 1. Only one 2 dinar piece, produced annually from 1990 to 1992, was released under this currency. Initially carrying a face value of 2.00 convertible dinara, the coin was withdrawn and demonetized during the middle of 1992.

Another circulation 2 dinar piece was introduced by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992 as part of the new Yugoslav reformed dinar. It held a value of 2.00 dinara before being demonetized in the middle of 1993.

With the release of the "1993" or October dinar during mid-1993, another 2 dinar circulation coin was introduced. It circulated very briefly for a value of 2.00 "1993" dinara before being demonetized near the end of 1993.

No 2 dinar coins were made under the "1994" or January dinar. The next coin of the denomination, part of the Yugoslav novi dinar, was then produced from 2000 to 2002. This piece circulated for a value of 2.00 novi dinara in the Republic of Serbia from 2000 to 2003. From then, it continued to be used for 2.00 Serbian dinara in the Republic of Serbia and its successor, the sovereign Republic of Serbia, until 2010.

All of the coins were distributed by the National Bank of Yugoslavia (now the National Bank of Serbia) and its precursors, the National Bank of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. With the exception of the 1925 type, which was struck at the mint of the French Coinage Society in Poissy, France, and the Royal Belgian Mint in Brussels, Belgium, each of the pieces was struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins (Serbo-Croatian: Zavod za izradu novčanica i kovanog novca) in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (in modern Serbia).

CoinsEdit

Coins of the Serbian dinar (1925–1938)Edit

Coin of Alexander I (1925)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1925

1925 coin

On December 1, 1918, nearly a month after the end of World War I (1914–1918), the Kingdom of Serbia was unified with Montenegro and the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (colloquially known as "Yugoslavia"). Peter I Karađorđević (1844–1921; r. 1918–1921), the previous Serbian monarch, was proclaimed king of the newly formed nation, and his dynasty, the House of Karađorđević, was established as the country's royal family. After Peter's death in 1921, his second oldest son, Alexander Karađorđević, was declared the next King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Upon becoming king, he adopted the monarchical name Alexander I (Serbo-Croatian: Aleksandar I).

Because of the change of leadership, in 1925 the National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes authorized the production of a new coin series consisting of denominations of 50 para and 1, 2, and 20 dinara. With the exception of the 20 dinar piece, these coins were intended to be used alongside the 5, 10, and 25 para pieces in circulation since 1920. The 2 dinar coin of the series was released on September 5, 1925, and remained in circulation until April 20, 1940. It was struck under commission at the Poissy Mint in France and the Royal Belgian Mint in Belgium and designed by Henri-Auguste Patey (1855–1930), the Graveur général des monnaies (General Engraver of Coins) of the Monnaie de Paris at the time.

The 2 dinar coin, only produced in 1925, is composed of a cupronickel alloy of 75 percent copper and 25 percent nickel and measures 5 grams in mass, 23 millimeters in diameter, and 2.05 millimeters in thickness. It has coin alignment and a reeded edge, and like most coins, is round in shape. The rims of both sides of the piece are raised and decorated with a dentilated border.

A left-facing bust of King Alexander I appears in the center of the obverse. The Cyrillic caption "АЛЕКСАНДАР I КРАЉ СРБА, ХРВАТА И СЛОВЕНАЦА" (Romanized: Aleksander I, Kralj Srba, Hrvata, i Slovenaca), which translates from Serbo-Croatian as "Alexander I, King of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes", partially encircles the illustration, extending clockwise from the coin's lower left to lower right peripheries. Inscribed in small print below the depiction of Alexander is the "A.PATEY" signature of the artist.

The face value "2 ДИНАРА" (Romanized: 2 Dinara) is written on two lines in the center of the coin's reverse, the Gregorian date of minting, "1925", engraved horizontally below. A decorative wreath consisting of two tied branches occupies much of the rim, and the Karađorđević dynastic crown is displayed at the top of the piece, above the numeral in the face value. On coins struck in Poissy, a small thunderbolt mintmark is additionally included at about the seven o'clock position between the left branch in the wreath and the rim.

During a single year of production, a total of 54,504,177 examples of the coin, all business strikes, were manufactured. Of these, 29,500,000 were produced at the Royal Belgian Mint and 25,004,177 were made at the Poissy Mint.

Trial strikes and piedfortsEdit

Various unissued trial strikes of the 1925 coin are known, including silver proof and aluminum, brass, bronze, copper, nickel, and nickel-bronze off-metal strikes. The nickel-bronze pieces, which were struck exclusively at the Poissy Mint, include the word "ESSAI" at the reverse's lower or upper right rim.

At least one coin exhibiting a proportionally larger portrait of King Alexander I on the obverse and a handful of 3-millimeter-thick piedforts weighing 10.17 grams (compared to the standard 2.05-millimeter thickness and 5-gram mass) were also produced.

Coins of Peter II (1938)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1938 large crown

"Large crown" type

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1938 small crown

"Small crown" type

In response to growing separatism in Yugoslavia, in 1929, King Alexander I unpopularly abolished the nation's first constitution, prorogued the Yugoslav Parliament, and established a personal dictatorship. He also officially renamed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and redefined the country's internal divisions. From then, he ruled absolutely until his assassination in 1934.

Upon his death, Alexander's oldest son Peter became the next King of Yugoslavia, adopting the monarchical name Peter II (Serbo-Croatian: Petar II). However, being only 11 years old at the start of his reign, Peter was considered too young to assume the monarchical responsibilities of the kingdom, and Prince Prince Paul Karađorđević, a first cousin of Alexander, was appointed to govern in the young king's place as regent until he came of age to rule.

In spite of opposition from Peter and his advisers, on March 25, 1941, Prime Minister Dragiša Cvetković (1893–1969; i.o. 1939–1941), supported by Prince Paul, signed the Tripartite Pact, thereby aligning the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with the Axis powers in World War II. In response, two days later, opposition forces supported by the United Kingdom launched a successful coup d'état against the government of Cvetković and Paul. This initiative finally allowed the 17-year-old Peter to seize monarchical power, but inevitably resulted in the Axis invasion and subsequent occupation of Yugoslavia later that year.

In 1938, during the regency of Prince Paul, the National Bank of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia authorized the production of a new series of coins in denominations of 25 and 50 para, and 1, 2, 10, 20, and 50 dinara. Although dated 1938, the 2 dinar piece of the series was not released until August 16, 1939. From then, it circulated throughout Yugoslavia until the beginning of the Axis occupation in the spring of 1941. The piece then continued to be used in areas of German occupied Serbia until October 26, 1942. It was struck in two varieties at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade, and although they differ only slightly, they are listed as separate types in most coin catalogs. The designs of both types, drafted by Dalmatian sculptor Frano Meneghello Dinčić (1900–1986), were the result of a coin design competition held by the National Bank of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia around 1937.

The 2 dinar coin, struck solely in 1938, is composed of an aluminum-bronze alloy of 91 percent copper and 9 percent aluminum and measures 5 grams in mass, 24.5 millimeters in diameter, and 1.6 millimeters in thickness. It has coin alignment and a plain edge, and is round in shape. Both of the piece's rims are raised, and that of the obverse is decorated with a complete beaded border. The reverse's rim is also adorned with a similar boundary, but it only extends along the coin's upper and lower peripheries; the left and right rims are instead occupied by ornamental designs.

Displayed in the middle of the obverse is the Karađorđević dynastic crown, which, depending on the piece, measures either 12 or 14 millimeters in length. Most coin catalogs classify the 1938 piece based on the crown's size, usually listing the more common "large crown" type before the rarer "small crown" piece. The Cyrillic legend "КРАЉЕВИНА ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА" (Romanized: Kraljevina Jugoslavija), Serbo-Croatian for "Kingdom of Yugoslavia", completely surrounds the illustration, extending clockwise from the coin's lower rim.

The face value "2 DINARA" is inscribed on two horizontal lines in the center of the reverse, the numeral engraved in significantly larger print than the following word. Written in smaller print below "DINARA" is the Gregorian date of minting, "1938".

A total of 75,000,000 examples of the coin were manufactured during a single year of production, including 74,250,000 pieces of the "large crown" type and 750,000 specimens of the "small crown" type. Business strikes and proofs of both types are reported to exist.

Error coinsEdit

In addition to regular strikes, an error with medallic alignment is also known to exist.

Coins of the Federation dinar (1945–1963)Edit

First circulation coin (1945)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1945

1945 coin

During the first half of World War II, two prominent Yugoslav resistance groups – the communist Partisans led by Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980) and royalist Chetniks commanded by Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović (1893–1946) – began to fight against occupying Axis forces. In 1942, however, ideological differences between the two movements led the Chetniks to switch sides, leaving the Partisans as the only major anti-Axis resistance group in Yugoslavia. The Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia) was established by the group on November 29, 1943, governing over Partisan-held territories until the end of World War II in Europe in the spring of 1945. From then, it remained the de facto government of liberated Yugoslavia until November 29, 1945, when the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia) was formed.

During mid to late 1945, the renamed National Bank of Yugoslavia authorized the production of a new series of coins in denominations of 50 para and 1, 2, and 5 dinara. As part of the new Federation dinar, these pieces were intended to replace the pre-war Yugoslav coins introduced under the monarchy. All four were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade. The 2 dinar piece of the series was released on November 4, 1945, and remained in circulation until December 31, 1956.

The 2 dinar coin, struck solely in 1945, is composed of a 97.5-percent zinc alloy and measures 4 grams in mass, 22 millimeters in diameter, and 1.5 millimeters in thickness. It has coin alignment and a reeded edge, and is round in shape. Both of the piece's rims are raised and decorated with a beaded border.

Featured in the center of the obverse is the emblem of DF Yugoslavia – which consists of five lit torches surrounded by ears of wheat. A ribbon bearing the date "29·XI·1943" bounds the wheat, and a red star symbolizing communism appears above the entire emblem. Printed clockwise along the rim above is the Serbo-Croatian name of Yugoslavia, rendered in Cyrillic as "ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА" (Romanized: Jugoslavija). The remainder of the coin's periphery is occupied by nine five-pointed stars.

The face value "2 DINARA" is inscribed on two horizontal lines in the middle of the reverse, the numeral shown in significantly larger print than the word. Written counterclockwise at the coin's lower boundary is the Gregorian date of minting, "1945", and engraved along the remainder of the rim are fifteen five-pointed stars.

A reported 70,000,000 examples of the 1945 coin were produced. Only business strikes are known for this particular piece.

Second and third circulation coins (1953–1963)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1963

1963 coin

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1953

1953 coin

The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia), a communist republic, was proclaimed on November 29, 1945, and formally established with the promulgation of a new constitution on January 31, 1946. It was later renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia) in accordance with the 1963 constitution. Josip Broz Tito initially led both republics, serving from 1945 to 1963 as prime minister, or head of government, of FPR Yugoslavia, and from 1953 to his death in 1980 as the president, or head of state, of FPR and SFR Yugoslavia.

From 1953 to 1955, the National Bank of Yugoslavia called for the production of a new series of coins for the Federation dinar in denominations of 50 para and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 dinara. Because of Yugoslavia's name change in 1963, similar coins of the same denominations (excluding 50 para) were also produced that year with updated legends. All pieces of both series were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade. The 2 dinar coin of FPR Yugoslavia, although dated 1953, was not released until September 1, 1954. Similarly, the piece of SFR Yugoslavia, dated 1963, was not issued until September 15, 1964. Although initially part of the Federation dinar, which was demonetized in 1965, both pieces continued to circulate for 0.02 hard dinar until May 31, 1968.

Both 2 dinar pieces, which mostly differ from the legend on the obverse, are composed of an alloy of 99 percent aluminum and measure 1.24 grams in mass, 22.2 millimeters in diameter, and 1.5 millimeters in thickness. They have medallic alignment and a plain edge, and are round in shape. The rims of both sides are raised and decorated with a beaded border.

Featured in the center of the obverse of 1953-dated pieces is the emblem of FPR Yugoslavia – which consists of five lit torches (representing PR Croatia, PR Macedonia, PR Montenegro, PR Serbia, and PR Slovenia) surrounded by ears of wheat. A ribbon bearing the date "29·XI·1943" bounds the wheat, and a red star symbolizing communism appears above the entire emblem. On 1963 coins, this symbol is replaced by the emblem of SFR Yugoslavia, which is similar to that of FPR Yugoslavia, but features six torches (representing SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, and SR Slovenia) instead of five. On 1953 pieces, this image is surrounded by the Serbo-Croatian name of FPR Yugoslavia, "FEDERATIVNA NARODNA REPUBLIKA JUGOSLAVIJA", which extends clockwise from the lower left to lower right rims. Written in the same direction on 1963-dated coins is the local name of SFR Yugoslavia, "SOCIJALISTIČKA FEDERATIVNA REPUBLIKA JUGOSLAVIJA". The beginning and end of the inscriptions on both coins are separated by a group of four diamonds at the bottom of the obverse.

The face value "2 ДИНАРА" (Romanized: 2 Dinara) is rendered in a decorative font in the middle of the reverse. The numeral in the value is written horizontally in large print in the center, while the word "ДИНАРА" (dinara) is inscribed counterclockwise along the lower rim in a noticeably smaller font. Engraved in the middle of the coin is the Gregorian date of minting, its first two digits separated from the last two by the number "2". Seven five-pointed stars occupy the remainder of the piece's rim at the top of the reverse.

A total of 114,992,000 examples of the 1953 piece and 11,074,000 specimens of the 1963 coin were reportedly produced. Both types were only struck with a standard finish, and a handful of uncirculated examples of each were distributed in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.

Coins of the hard dinar (1970–1986)Edit

FAO circulation coin (1970)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1970 FAO

1970 FAO coin

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), an agency of the United Nations (UN) tasked with combating world hunger, was established on October 16, 1945, at a conference in Quebec City, Canada. Since its inception, the intergovernmental organization has provided assistance to a number of countries worldwide, including Yugoslavia, one of its original members. In promotion and celebration of the FAO, the National Bank of Yugoslavia authorized the production of circulating commemorative coins in denominations of 2 and 5 dinara in 1970 and 1 and 10 dinara in 1976. Each of these pieces was struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins and designed by Serbian sculptor Dragomir Mileusnić (1943–). Although dated 1970, the 2 dinar piece was not released until March 5, 1971. It remained in circulation until its demonetization on September 30, 1988.

The 2 dinar coin is composed of a copper-nickel-zinc alloy of 70 percent copper, 18 percent zinc, and 12 percent nickel, and measures 5 grams in mass, 24.5 millimeters in diameter, and 1.65 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a reeded edge, and is round in shape. Both of the piece's rims are raised, and that of the obverse is decorated with a beaded border.

The emblem of SFR Yugoslavia is displayed in the middle of the obverse. Printed clockwise along the rim above is the Cyrillic legend "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА", which is abbreviated for the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian name of SFR Yugoslavia, "Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија". Its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", shortened for the Serbo-Croatian Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija and Slovene Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija, is inscribed in the opposite direction at the coin's lower boundary. These two inscriptions are separated from one another by two groups of four diamonds, one at each side of the obverse.

A large numeral "2" is featured in the center of the reverse, inside a circle consisting of four local translations of the word dinara and the Gregorian date of minting, "1970". These translations are written in the order of the Serbo-Croatian "ДИНАРА" and "DINARA", Slovene "DINARJA", and Macedonian "ДИНАРИ" (dinari), and revolve clockwise around the "2". They are separated from one another and the date, which is printed in the opposite direction below the numeral, by small circular points. Ears of wheat are engraved along the coin's left and right rims, flanking the representation of the coin's face value. Written counterclockwise at the piece's lower boundary is the caption "FAO", and printed in the opposite direction at the upper periphery is the motto of the FAO, "FIAT PANIS", which is Latin for "let there be bread".

During a single year of production, 500,000 examples of the commemorative 2 dinar piece were produced, all with a standard finish. Of these, an undisclosed number of uncirculated examples were distributed in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia, and over 3,000 were sold in promotional albums and boards by the FAO.

First standard circulation coin (1971–1981)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1974

1974 coin

During the 1950s and early 1960s, inflation continued to lower the purchasing power of the Federation dinar. In response to this problem, in 1966 the National Bank of Yugoslavia revalued Yugoslavia's currency at a rate of 100 to 1, creating what became known as the Yugoslav hard dinar. The first series of coins for this currency, consisting of denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 50 para, and 1 dinar, was minted later that year into the next, but was not fully released until 1967. This series was later supplemented during the 1970s by new 1, 2, 5, and 10 dinar coins. All of the pieces were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins and designed by Serbian artist Dragomir Mileusnić. The 2 dinar coin of the series was struck annually from 1971 to 1981, and was first released on March 5, 1971. It remained in circulation until its demonetization on September 30, 1988.

The 2 dinar piece is composed of a copper-nickel-zinc alloy of 70 percent copper, 18 percent zinc, and 12 percent nickel, and measures 5 grams in mass, 24.5 millimeters in diameter, and 1.65 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a reeded edge, and is round in shape. Both of the coin's rims are raised, and that of the obverse is decorated with a beaded border.

The emblem of SFR Yugoslavia is displayed in the middle of the obverse, the Cyrillic inscription "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА" written clockwise along the rim above and its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", written in the opposite direction at the periphery below. Three ears of wheat are usually present in the emblem, but on a handful of coins from 1978, a fourth is included near the central flame. The two legends on the coin are separated from one another by two groups of four diamonds, one at each side of the obverse.

A large numeral "2" is shown in the center of the reverse, inside a circle consisting of four local translations of the word dinara and the Gregorian date of minting. The four translations – written in the order of the Serbo-Croatian "ДИНАРА" and "DINARA", Slovene "DINARJA", and Macedonian "ДИНАРИ" (dinari), revolve clockwise around the "2", while the date travels in the opposite direction below the number. All of these items comprising the circle are separated from one another by small circular points. A wreath consisting of tied olive and oak branches is engraved along much of the coin's rim, the olive branch occupying the left side of the piece and the oak branch extending along the right. Six five-pointed stars representing the constituent republics of SFR Yugoslavia also appear on the reverse, occupying the remainder of the rim at the top of the piece.

Mintage figures for the 1971–1981 coin vary among different coin catalogs. Ranko Mandić's Catalog of Coins of Yugoslavia and Yugoslavian Lands 1700-1994 and derived works indicate approximately 208,525,408 examples of the coin were manufactured, including pieces with standard and proof finishes. In contrast, the Standard Catalog of World Coins lists a slightly higher mintage of 209,006,000 pieces, and does not mention proofs at all. Both, however, report that a smaller number of uncirculated specimens were included in official mint sets.

Mintages
Year Mintage
1971 9,913,000 (Mandić)
10,413,000 (SCWC)
1972 18,446,408 (Mandić)
18,446,000 (SCWC)
1973 31,848,000
1974 10,989,000
1975 92,000
1976 6,092,000
1976 Proof Unknown (Mandić)
1977 19,335,000
1978 13,035,000
1979 20,088,000 (Mandić)
20,069,000 (SCWC)
1980 36,088,000
1981 42,599,000
Total ~208,525,408 (Mandić)
209,006,000 (SCWC)
Trial strikes and errorsEdit

A 1978-dated nickel trial strike of the piece is known to exist.

One notable error is struck using the copper-nickel-zinc planchets of contemporary 1 dinar pieces. Measuring 3.8 grams in mass, 21.8 millimeters in diameter, and 1.5 millimeters in thickness, the error is noticeably smaller than normal 2 dinar coins. As a result, part of the design on both sides is cut off.

1978 pattern coinsEdit

Evidently, plans to redesign Yugoslavia's currency were underway around 1978, as a series of unissued pattern coins in denominations of 25 and 50 para, and 1, 2, 5, and 10 dinara was struck that year at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade. All of the pieces were likely designed by Serbian sculptor Dragomir Mileusnić, the artist of various Yugoslav coins of the time period.

The 2 dinar piece, which measures 23.7 millimeters in diameter, was struck in a variety of compositions and masses. Two cupronickel varieties, one weighing 4.7 grams and another weighing 5.9, and a single brass coin measuring 4.6 grams are reported to exist. Regardless of the variety, the 1978 patterns have medallic alignment and raised, undecorated rims, and are round in shape.

The emblem of SFR Yugoslavia is displayed inside a beaded circular boundary in the center of the obverse. Printed above, extending clockwise from the left to right rims, is the Cyrillic legend "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА". Its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", is inscribed in the same direction below, traveling from the piece's right to left peripheries. These two inscriptions are separated from one another by two small diamonds, one at each side of the obverse.

A large numeral "2" is engraved in the middle of the reverse, superimposing eight lines of the word dinara in Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, and Macedonian. In order, the words are written as "ДИНАРА" and "DINARA", "DINARJA", and "ДИНАРИ" (dinari), and are separated from one another by small circular points. An "M" mark, likely identifying the designer, is additionally included near the end of the last line, partially overlapped by the "2". The Gregorian date of minting, "1978", is printed after the "M", and is separated from the letter by a small circular point.

The total mintage of the 1978 patterns is currently unknown. They are currently documented in certain catalogs of Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav currency, including Ranko Mandić's Catalog of Coins of Yugoslavia and Yugoslavian Lands 1700-1994 and Zlatko Viščević's Coins and Banknotes of Yugoslavia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Macedonia. As of its 2017 edition, the popular Standard Catalog of World Coins does not include listings for any of the 1978 2 dinar patterns.

Varieties
No. Composition Mass Diameter References
1 Cupronickel 4.7 g 23.7 mm R150 (Mandić)
S148 (Viščević)
2 5.9 g R151 (Mandić)
S149 (Viščević)
3 Brass 4.6 g R152 (Mandić)
S150 (Viščević)

Second standard circulation coin (1982–1986)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1984

1984 coin

Another period of high inflation in Yugoslavia occurred during the early 1980s, causing a noticeable decrease in the hard dinar's purchasing power. As a result, many of the small denomination coins in use at the time period began to disappear from circulation. In 1982, the lower valued 5, 10, and 20 para pieces were discontinued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia, and a new series in denominations of 25 and 50 para, and 1, 2, 5, and 10 dinara was introduced. Three years later in 1985, these were joined by new 20, 50, and 100 dinar coins. All of the coins of the series were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade and designed by Serbian sculptor Dragomir Mileusnić. The 2 dinar piece, which was struck annually from 1982 to 1986, was released on May 20, 1982, and remained in circulation until September 30, 1988.

The 2 dinar coin is composed of a brass alloy of 75 percent copper, 21 percent zinc, and 4 percent nickel, and measures 4.3 grams in mass, 22 millimeters in diameter, and 1.5 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a reeded edge, and is round in shape. Both of the piece's rims are raised and decorated with a beaded border.

The emblem of SFR Yugoslavia appears in the middle of the obverse, the Cyrillic legend "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА" engraved clockwise along the rim above and its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", written in the opposite direction at the periphery below. These two inscriptions are separated from one another by two small diamonds, one at each side of the obverse.

A large numeral "2" is displayed in the center of the reverse. Four translations of the word dinara – the Serbo-Croatian "ДИНАРА" and "DINARA", Slovene "DINARJA", and Macedonian "ДИНАРИ" (dinari) – are printed clockwise in that order from the coin's lower left to lower right peripheries, while the Gregorian date of minting is written in the opposite direction at the bottom rim. The translations are separated from one another and by the year by small circular points.

Over five consecutive years of production, approximately 259,153,000 examples of the coin were manufactured, all with a standard finish. Of these, a small number of uncirculated specimens were distributed in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.

Mintages
Year Mintage
1982 40,632,000
1983 35,468,000
1984 51,500,000
1985 81,100,000
1986 50,453,000
Total 259,153,000
Trial strikes and errorsEdit

Copper trial strikes of the coin bearing the dates 1983, 1984, and 1985 are known to exist.

A handful of notable error varieties of the 1982–1986 piece are recorded as well. Some pieces are known to have irregular die axes, including one type with coin alignment. Others are reported to have been struck on the smaller brass planchets of contemporary 1 dinar pieces, which measure 3.6 grams in mass, 20 millimeters in diameter, and 1.5 millimeters in thickness.

Coins of the convertible dinar (1990–1992)Edit

Circulation coin (1990–1992)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1990

1990 coin

High levels of inflation continued to affect Yugoslavia into the late 1980s, and eventually culminated in 1989 with a brief period of hyperinflation. In response to this problem, the National Bank of Yugoslavia revalued the nation's currency on January 1, 1990, establishing what became known as the Yugoslav convertible dinar. A few days later, on January 3, the first (and only) series of coins for the new currency was introduced, consisting of denominations of 10, 20, and 50 para, and 1, 2, and 5 dinara. All seven pieces were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade and designed by Dragomir Mileusnić. The 2 dinar coin, which was produced annually until 1992, remained in circulation until July 3, 1992, two days after the reformed dinar was introduced. During the short period between July 1 and July 3, the piece had a value equivalent to 0.02 reformed dinar.

The 2 dinar piece is composed of a copper-nickel-zinc alloy of 70 percent copper, 18 percent zinc, and 12 percent nickel, and measures 6.98 grams in mass, 26 millimeters in diameter, and 1.85 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a reeded edge, and is round in shape. The rims of both sides of the coin are raised and decorated with a beaded boundary.

The piece's designs are very similar to those of the 1982–1986 coin. Displayed in the middle of the obverse is the emblem of SFR Yugoslavia, the Cyrillic "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА" written clockwise along the rim above and its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", inscribed in the opposite direction at the periphery below. The legends are separated from one another by two small diamonds, one at each side of the obverse.

A large numeral "2" is featured in the center of the reverse. Four translations of the word dinara – the Serbo-Croatian "ДИНАРА" and "DINARA", Slovene "DINARJA", and Macedonian "ДИНАРИ" (dinari) – are printed clockwise in that order from the coin's lower left to lower right rims. They are separated from one another and the Gregorian date of minting, which is engraved in the opposite direction at the bottom of the piece, by small circular points.

A total of either 62,927,000 or 62,927,500 examples of the coin were manufactured over three consecutive years of production. Of these, a small number of uncirculated pieces were distributed in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia. Reportedly, a large percentage of the 1992 coins were melted down, making them rarer and slightly more valuable than earlier dated examples.

Mintages
Year Mintage
1990 15,936,000
1991 32,836,500 (Mandić)
32,836,000 (SCWC)
1992 14,155,000
Total 62,927,500 (Mandić)
62,927,000 (SCWC)
Trial strikes and errorsEdit

At least one nickel-plated zinc trial strike of the coin was minted in 1991. An example was recently sold in 2007 for 115 by the Serbian Numismatic Society (SND).

Error types with irregular die axes are also known to exist.

Coins of the reformed dinar (1992)Edit

Circulation coin (1992)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1992

1992 coin

During the 1990s, a series of political crises began to dramatically affect Yugoslavia. From 1991 to 1992, four of the six constituent republics of SFR Yugoslavia broke away from the country, becoming what are now the independent nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia. As a result, the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro united to form the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR Yugoslavia) in 1992. In addition, unresolved ethnic conflicts in former Yugoslavia escalated into a series of wars during the time period.

Economic problems also affected the South Slavic country into the 1990s. The National Bank of Yugoslavia's initiative in revaluing the dinar in 1990 was unsuccessful, and in April 1992 another period of hyperinflation ensued. In another attempt to control inflation, the country's central bank revalued the dinar once more on July 1, 1992, creating what became known as the Yugoslav reformed dinar. On this date, a new series of coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 50 dinara was introduced for the new currency. These pieces circulated very briefly before their demonetization on September 10, 1993, not long before the introduction of the 1993 dinar. All five were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade and designed by Dragomir Mileusnić.

The 2 dinar piece, struck solely in 1992, is composed of a brass alloy of 90 percent copper and 10 percent zinc and measures 4.28 grams in mass, 21 millimeters in diameter, and 1.6 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a plain edge, and is round in shape. Both of the coin's rims are raised and decorated with a beaded border.

The emblem of the National Bank of Yugoslavia – which consists of a monogram inside a solid rectangular boundary – is displayed in the center of the obverse. In the depiction, the letters comprising the monogram, "НБЈ", make up the initials of "Народна банка Југославије" (Romanized: Narodna banka Jugoslavije), the name of the bank in Serbo-Croatian. Written clockwise along the rim above is the Cyrillic legend "ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА", and printed in the opposite direction at the periphery below is its Latin equivalent, "JUGOSLAVIJA".

A large, thick numeral "2" is featured in the middle of the reverse, the Cyrillic "ДИНАРА" inscribed clockwise in small print at the left rim and the Latin "DINARA" written in the same font and direction at the right periphery. Displayed below the "2" in smaller print is the Gregorian date of minting, "1992".

During a single year of production, approximately 10,571,000 examples of the coin, all business strikes, were manufactured.

Coins of the 1993 dinar (1993)Edit

Circulation coin (1993)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 1993

1993 coin

Despite the National Bank of Yugoslavia's efforts to control inflation, hyperinflation continued into the period of the Yugoslav reformed dinar. As a result, all of the coins and lower valued banknotes of the currency disappeared from circulation rather quickly. In another attempt to combat inflation, another revalued incarnation of Yugoslavia's currency, the "1993" or October dinar, was introduced on October 1, 1993. On this date, the National Bank of Yugoslavia issued a series of coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dinara. A 500 dinar piece was evidently planned as well, but was never released into circulation. On November 30, 1993, only about two months after being introduced, the coins were withdrawn and demonetized due to their low purchasing power and limited use. All of the pieces were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade. Their designs are similar to those of the 1992 Yugoslav coin series designed by Dragomir Mileusnić, but their authorship is uncertain.

The 2 dinar coin is composed of a copper-nickel-zinc alloy of 70 percent copper, 18 percent zinc, and 12 percent nickel, and measures 3.86 grams in mass, 20 millimeters in diameter, and 1.6 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a plain edge, and is round in shape. Both of the piece's rims are raised and form the outline of an octagon, and are decorated with a beaded border.

The emblem of the National Bank of Yugoslavia is displayed in the middle of the coin's obverse. Printed clockwise along the rim above is the Latin "SR JUGOSLAVIJA", an abbreviation for the Serbo-Croatian Savezna Republika Jugoslavija (English: "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia"). Its Cyrillic equivalent, "СР JУГОСЛАВИJА", which is shortened for "Савезна Република Југославија", is inscribed below the bank emblem, extending in the opposite direction along the coin's lower periphery.

A large, thick numeral "2" is engraved in the center of the reverse, the Cyrillic "ДИНАРА" inscribed clockwise along the rim to the left and the Latin "DINARA" printed in the same direction at the periphery to the right. Written horizontally below the number is the Gregorian date of minting, "1993".

During a single year of production, approximately 10,263,000 examples of the coin were manufactured. Only business strikes of this particular type are known to exist.

Coins of the novi dinar (2000–2002)Edit

Circulation coin (2000–2002)Edit

Yugoslavia 2 dinara 2000

2000 coin

Unchecked hyperinflation quickly caused the demise of the 1993 dinar, which only circulated for three months being withdrawn. In one final revaluation attempt by the National Bank of Yugoslavia, the 1993 dinar was replaced on January 1, 1994, by what became known as the 1994 or January dinar. This currency, however, was even less successful than its predecessor, having been withdrawn less than a month after its introduction, on January 24. On this date, the National Bank of Yugoslavia released the novi dinar, which unlike previous incarnations of Yugoslavia's currency, was not revalued but pegged at par to the Deutsche Mark. Initially volatile, the new currency began stabilizing around 1999. It was replaced in Montenegro by the Deutsche Mark later that year, and in Serbia by the Serbian dinar in 2003.

The first series of coins of the novi dinar, consisting of denominations of 1, 5, 10, and 50 para and 1 dinar was introduced by the National Bank of Yugoslavia in 1994. These were eventually joined in 2000 by new 50 para and 1, 2, and 5 dinar pieces. This series, the last attributed to the nation of Yugoslavia, was struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade. The 2 dinar piece, which was struck in 2000 and 2002, was first released on December 15, 2000. It remained in circulation in Serbia as part of the novi dinar until 2003, and as part of the Serbian dinar from then until January 1, 2010. The coin, along with the others introduced in 2000, was reportedly designed by Serbian sculptor Mitar Petković.

The 2 dinar piece is composed of a copper-nickel-zinc alloy of 70 percent copper, 18 percent zinc, and 12 percent nickel, and measures 5.25 grams in mass, 22 millimeters in diameter, and 1.8 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a reeded edge, and is round in shape. Both of the coin's rims are raised and undecorated.

Displayed in a solid circular boundary in the middle of the obverse is the coat of arms of FR Yugoslavia – which consists of an escutcheon bearing a double-headed eagle in its center. A shield superimposes the eagle's breast, containing symbols representative of the Serbs and Montenegrins. Printed clockwise along the rim above is the Cyrillic legend "СР JУГОСЛАВИJА", and written in the opposite direction at the periphery below is its Latin equivalent, "SR JUGOSLAVIJA". These inscriptions are separated from one another by two small circular points, one at each side of the obverse.

The Gračanica Monastery, a well-known Serbian Orthodox religious building, is illustrated at the lower right portion of the reverse. At the time of the coin's minting, this structure was located in the village of Gračanica in Kosovo and Metohija, an autonomous province of Serbia. However, many countries now consider this village (including the monastery) as part of the disputed and partially recognized Republic of Kosovo, which declared its independence from Serbia in 2008. A large numeral "2" is inscribed at the left side of the piece, and the words "ДИНАРА" and "DINARA" are printed clockwise at the upper rim, separated from one another by a single circular point. Written horizontally in a noticeably smaller font below the "2" is the Gregorian date of minting, either "2000" or "2002".

During two years of production, approximately 81,124,000 examples of the coin were manufactured, all with a standard finish. Of these, an unspecified number were sold in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.

Mintages
Year Mintage
2000 10,071,000
2002 71,053,000
Total 81,124,000

ReferencesEdit

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Yugoslav dinar
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