- This article is about the Yugoslav coin struck in two types from 1965 to 1991. For Montenegrin coins of the same denomination, see Montenegrin 20 para coin. For the Serbian coin, see Serbian 20 para coin.
0.20 Yugoslav dinar
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Emblem of SFR Yugoslavia, state title
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The 20 para coin is a circulation piece of Yugoslavia, a former Southeast European country that existed during the 20th and early 21st centuries. It was issued in two types from 1967 to 1991, during the existence of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia). Both types were distributed by the National Bank of Yugoslavia (now the National Bank of Serbia) and minted at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins (Serbo-Croatian: Zavod za izradu novčanica i kovanog novca) in Belgrade.
The first coin of the denomination was released in 1967 (although initially dated 1965) and remained in production until 1981. Prior to its demonetization at the end of 1985, the piece carried a legal tender face value equivalent to 0.20 Yugoslav hard dinar.
A second 20 para coin was introduced in 1990 and manufactured until 1991. It circulated for 0.20 convertible dinar before being withdrawn in early 1992, a few months before the introduction of the Yugoslav reformed dinar.
Coin of the hard dinar (1965–1981)Edit
During the 1950s and early 1960s, high levels of inflation continued to noticeably decrease the purchasing power of the Federation dinar, which had been in circulation in Yugoslavia since 1945. In response to this problem, on January 1, 1966, the National Bank of Yugoslavia revalued the dinar at a rate of 100 to 1, creating what became known as the Yugoslav hard dinar. The first series of coins for this currency, which consisted of denominations of 5, 10, 20, and 50 para and 1 dinar, was minted late in 1965 and into 1966, but was not fully released until 1967. All of the pieces of the series were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins and designed by Serbian sculptor Dragomir Mileusnić (1943–). The 20 para coin, which was struck in 1965 and again from 1973 to 1981, was first released on February 15, 1967. It remained in circulation until its demonetization on December 31, 1985.
The piece is composed of a brass alloy of 85 percent copper, 14.5 percent zinc, and 0.5 percent aluminum and measures 4 grams in mass, 23.2 millimeters in diameter, and 1.3 to 1.5 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a reeded edge, and like most coins, is round in shape. Both of the coin's rims are raised. The obverse's rim is decorated with a dentilated border, while the reverse's is adorned with a beaded boundary.
Featured in the center of the obverse is the emblem of SFR Yugoslavia – which consists of six lit torches (representing SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, and SR Slovenia) surrounded by ears of wheat. The wheat is bounded by a ribbon bearing the date "29·XI·1943", and a red star symbolizing communism appears above the entire emblem. Printed clockwise along the rim above is the Cyrillic caption "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА", which is abbreviated for the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian name of SFR Yugoslavia, "Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија". Its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", which shortened for the Serbo-Croatian Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija and Slovene Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija, is engraved in the opposite direction at the coin's lower periphery. These two legends are separated from one another by two groups of four diamonds, one group at each side of the obverse.
A large numeral "20" is engraved in a decorative font in the middle of the coin's reverse. Printed clockwise along the rim above are the Serbo-Croatian words "ПАРА" and "PARA", and written in the opposite direction at the periphery below are the Slovene "PAR" and Macedonian "ПАРИ" (Romanized: Pari). A circular point divides the Serbo-Croatian inscriptions at the top of the piece, and another separates the Slovene and Macedonian translations at the bottom. The Gregorian date of minting is engraved horizontally in the middle of the reverse, its first two digits separated from its last two by the "20".
According to works by numismatic author Ranko Mandić, a total of 529,880,000 examples of the coin were manufactured, each with a standard finish. The popular Standard Catalog of World Coins reports similar numbers, but does not include mintage figures for 1965. A small number of uncirculated pieces from 1965 were distributed in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.
|1965|| 90,270,000 (Mandić)|
Trial strikes and errorsEdit
Other irregular varieties of the 20 para piece are also known, including examples from 1973 and 1981 struck on a thinner planchet and a specimen from 1977 featuring a small five-pointed star below the "7" in the date. Some pieces from 1965 were erroneously struck on the cupronickel planchets of the 1965 1 dinar coin, which measures 3.8 grams in mass, 21.8 millimeters in diameter, and 1.5 millimeters in thickness. Similarly, a handful of examples from 1980 use the smaller brass flans of the 10 para piece, which measure 3 grams in mass, 21 millimeters in diameter, and 1 millimeter in thickness.
Coin of the convertible dinar (1990–1991)Edit
High inflation continued to significantly lower the purchasing power of the Yugoslav hard dinar into the 1980s. As a result, many of the small denomination coins in use at the time, including the first 20 para piece, began to quickly disappear from circulation. As the years progressed, inflation rates continued to rise, and eventually culminated with a brief period of hyperinflation in late 1989. In response to this problem, on January 1, 1990, the National Bank of Yugoslavia revalued the dinar at a ratio of 10,000 to 1, establishing what became known as the Yugoslav convertible dinar. The first series of coins for this new currency, which consisted of denominations of 10, 20, and 50 para and 1, 2, and 5 dinara, was then released into circulation a few days later on January 3. All seven pieces were struck at the Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins in Belgrade and designed by Dragomir Mileusnić. The 20 para coin (pictured above), which was minted from 1990 to 1991, circulated until March 1, 1992, a few months before the introduction of the reformed dinar on July 1 of the same year.
The piece is composed of a brass alloy of 85 percent copper and 15 percent zinc and measures 3.87 grams in mass, 20 millimeters in diameter, and 1.7 millimeters in thickness. It has medallic alignment and a plain edge, and is round in shape. Both of the coin's rims are raised and decorated with a beaded border.
The emblem of SFR Yugoslavia is illustrated in the center of the obverse, the Cyrillic legend "СФР ЈУГОСЛАВИЈА" inscribed clockwise along the rim above and its Latin equivalent, "SFR JUGOSLAVIJA", engraved in the opposite direction at the periphery below. These two texts are separated from one another by two small diamonds, one at each side of the obverse.
A large numeral "20" is displayed in the middle of the coin's reverse. Extending clockwise from the coin's lower left to lower right peripheries are four translations of the word para – the Serbo-Croatian "ПАРА" and "PARA", Slovene "PAR", and Macedonian "ПАРИ" (pari). They are separated from one another and the Gregorian date of minting, which is printed in the opposite direction at the coin's lower rim, by small circular points.
According to works by Ranko Mandić, approximately 84,471,000 examples of the coin were manufactured, each with a standard finish. The Standard Catalog of World Coins reports a significantly higher mintage of 234,856,000 specimens, the same total mintage provided by the catalog for the contemporary 10 para piece. Of the coins produced in 1991, only a small percentage were reportedly released, circulating almost exclusively in the republics of Croatia and Slovenia. The remainder were apparently melted down. A handful of uncirculated examples of both years were distributed in official mint sets by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.
|1990|| 41,353,000 (Mandić)|
|1991|| 43,118,000 (Mandić)|
|Total|| 84,471,000 (Mandić)|
A copper trial strike of the coin was minted in 1990.
- Numismatic Guaranty Corporation – Yugoslavia - 20 Para, KM# 45 (1965–1981) • Yugoslavia - 20 Para, KM# 140 (1990–1991)
- Colnect – 20 Para (1965–1981) • 20 Para (1990–1991)
- Numista – 20 Para (1965–1981) • 20 Para (1990–1991) (English) (French)
- Viščević, Zlatko (2011). Coins and Banknotes of Yugoslavia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia (2nd ed.). Numizmatičko društvo Castua. ISBN 9789535689003
- Economy of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on the English Wikipedia
- Yugoslav dinar on the English Wikipedia
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|Miscellaneous||Dinar • Hyperinflation • Institute for Manufacturing Banknotes and Coins • Languages and currency • National Bank of Yugoslavia • Para • Yugoslav leaders on currency • Yugoslav mint sets • Yugoslav proof sets|