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20 mark
Sachsen Friedrich August 20 Mark
Last issue
General information
Country

Flag of the German Empire German Empire
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918) Kingdom of Saxony

Value

20.00

Years
Measurements and composition
Mass

7.965 g[1]

Diameter

22.5 mm[1]

Composition

gold[1]

Appearance
Shape

round

Obverse
Click to
Reverse

Reichsadler, state title, value, year[1]

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The 20 mark coin was first issued by the Kingdom of Saxony in 1872[3], during the reign of King John (Johann).[4] A similar issue was introduced a year later in 1873.[3] Upon John's death in 1894, his son Albert succeeded him as king[4], and a coin featuring his image was minted from 1874 to 1878, and then again from 1894 to 1895. In 1903 an issue of the late King George was introduced, and was followed by one of his son, Frederick Augustus III, which was issued from 1905 to 1914.[3]

HistoryEdit

Coin of JohnEdit

Sachsen Johann 1873 20 Mark

Coin of John from 1873

The first 20 mark coin of the Kingdom of Saxony was issued in 1872[3], during the 18th (and penultimate) year of the reign of King John (Johann).[4] It had the standard composition and measurements as every 20 mark coin issued by the states of the German Empire at the time, having been composed of .900 fine gold, weighing 7.965 grams, and measuring 22.5 millimeters in diameter.[1] A left-facing portrait of King John was engraved in the center of the coin's obverse, partially encircled by a caption reading "IOHANN V. G. G. KOENIG VON SACHSEN". Directly underneath the king's likeness was an "E" mint mark, which indicated the coin was struck at the Muldenhütten Mint.[2] The Reichsadler of the German Empire was featured on the reverse, accompanied by the state title of the Second Reich (DEUTSCHES REICH), an oak branch, the coin's value (as "20 M."), and the year, with the numbers of the date, the inscription of the value, and the words of the state title being separated by the heraldic eagle.[2][3] At least 1,093,000 examples were minted, with an unknown number from 1872 being struck in proof quality.[2]

A copper pattern of this coin was produced in 1873, but did not enter circulation.[3]

Coins of AlbertEdit

Sachsen Albert 20 Mark

Coin of Albert

John was succeeded by his eldest son Albert upon the former's death on October 29, 1873.[4] However, a 20 mark coin featuring his image was not struck until the first full year of his reign[4], in 1874.[3] It featured a right-facing effigy of Albert in the center of the obverse, accompanied by a caption reading "ALBERT KOENIG VON SACHSEN" and an "E" mint mark. The reverse was altered, and now featured a similar variant of the Reichsadler that did not separate any text, and the coin's value was now inscribed as "20 MARK". Production of the 20 mark coin of Albert ceased in 1878, but recommenced in 1894. Between these years, the only alteration made to the coin was the Reichsadler on the reverse, which was now larger and bore a smaller shield on its breast. A total of at least 637,745 examples excluding proofs were produced from 1874 to 1878, and 752,000 were minted from 1894 to 1895.[2]

Coin of GeorgeEdit

Sachsen Georg 20 Mark

Coin of George

George succeeded his brother Alfred as King of Saxony on June 19, 1902, upon the latter's death.[4] However, a 20 mark coin featuring the new king's image was not minted until the first (and only) full year of his reign, 1903. It featured a left-facing effigy of George, accompanied by a caption reading "GEORG KOENIG VON SACHSEN" and an "E" mint mark. No changes were made regarding the composition, measurements, and reverse design of the final 20 mark coin of Albert. As George's reign only lasted a short time, production of the 20 mark coin bearing his likeness was only issued during one year, 1903, and only about 250,000 examples were produced, excluding proofs.[2]

Coin of Frederick Augustus IIIEdit

Sachsen Friedrich August 20 Mark

Coin of Frederick Augustus III

Frederick Augustus III succeeded George as King of Saxony on October 15, 1904.[4] However, a 20 mark coin featuring the new king's likeness was not issued until the first full year[4] of his reign, 1905.[3] It featured a right-facing image of Frederick Augustus III, accompanied by an inscription reading "FRIEDRICH AUGUST KÖNIG V. SACHSEN" and an "E" mint mark. No changes were made regarding the composition, measurements, and reverse design of the issue of George. The coin was struck during the years 1905, 1913, and 1914. Between these years, a total of at least 946,507 examples were minted, with at least 86 being struck in proof quality.[2]

Two copper patterns were made in 1905, but did not enter circulation. One of the two featured an effigy of King Frederick Augustus III in uniform.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 All standard 20 gold mark coins had a mass of 7.965 grams, a diameter of 22.5 mm, and were composed of .900 fine gold. The Reichsadler of the German Empire, the state title of the Second Reich (DEUTSCHES REICH), the coin's value, and the year were always displayed on the reverse.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Cuhaj, George; Michael, Thomas (2009). Standard Catalog of World Gold Coins (6 ed.). Krause Publications. p. 608. ISBN 1440204241. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 NumisMaster
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 English language List of rulers of Saxony on the English Wikipedia
 v · d · e
German gold mark
Banknotes 5 ℳ10 ℳ20 ℳ50 ℳ100 ℳ1000 ℳ
Coins 1 ₰2 ₰5 ₰10 ₰20 ₰25 ₰50 ₰½ ℳ1 ℳ2 ℳ3 ℳ5 ℳ10 ℳ20 ℳ
Miscellaneous Bavarian MintBerlin State MintCoinage Act of 1873Darmstadt MintDresden MintFrankfurt MintHamburg MintHannover MintKarlsruhe State MintMuldenhütten MintReichsbankReichskassenscheinStuttgart State Mint
 
State coin issues
2 mark Anhalt (Anhalt-Dessau) • BadenBavariaBremenHamburgHesseLippeLübeckMecklenburg-SchwerinMecklenburg-StrelitzOldenburgPrussiaReuss Elder Line (Reuss-Obergreiz) • Reuss Younger Line (Reuss-Schleiz) • Saxe-AltenburgSaxe-Coburg-GothaSaxe-MeiningenSaxe-Weimar-EisenachSaxony (Saxony-Albertine) • Schaumburg-LippeSchwarzburg-RudolstadtSchwarzburg-SondershausenWürttemberg
3 mark AnhaltBadenBavariaBrunswickHamburgHesseLippeLübeckMecklenburg-SchwerinMecklenburg-StrelitzPrussiaReuss Elder LineSaxe-MeiningenSaxe-Weimar-EisenachSaxonySchaumburg-LippeSchwarzburg-SondershausenWürttemberg
5 mark AnhaltBadenBavariaBremenBrunswickHamburgHesseLübeckMecklenburg-SchwerinOldenburgPrussiaSaxe-AltenburgSaxe-Coburg-GothaSaxe-MeiningenSaxe-Weimar-EisenachSaxonySchaumburg-LippeWaldeck-PyrmontWürttemberg
10 mark AnhaltBadenBavariaBremenHamburgHesseLübeckMecklenburg-SchwerinMecklenburg-StrelitzOldenburgPrussiaReuss Younger LineSaxe-Coburg-GothaSaxe-MeiningenSaxonySchwarzburg-RudolstadtWürttemberg
20 mark AnhaltBadenBavariaBremenBrunswickHamburgHesseMecklenburg-SchwerinMecklenburg-StrelitzPrussiaReuss Elder LineReuss Younger LineSaxe-AltenburgSaxe-Coburg-GothaSaxe-MeiningenSaxe-Weimar-EisenachSaxonySchaumburg-LippeSchwarzburg-SondershausenWaldeck-PyrmontWürttemberg

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